Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Humans- the new endangered spe essays Humans are the dominating species on the planet. Since their appearance animals have become an endangered species and some of those species are already gone. Humans are the main reason for the extinction of some species, but now when pollution is high and tends to raise the humanity has become an endangered species. We might not feel it, but the problem will arise in the next few decades and then it will be late to save. The main reason for this is that we humans do not value life. Our disconnection from nature is leading to our destruction. Humans are connected with nature, because they have evolved from it (www.spaceandmotion.com). If we disconnect from it, this will be the day of our destruction. Nature is the main source of life. Humans do not preserve nature these days and this is occurring badly to all living things. If pollution keeps raising this planet will not be the best choice of a place to live. Humans use nature and its goods to expand their habits and by doing this they destroy thousands of habits and disturb the right way of existing of animals and plants. Cutting down trees, to make toothpicks, or killing a specific species, because it was eating the cattle of a farmer or just scaring the people, does not make humans to think for what is going to be the future is this keeps going. And not only killing and cutting, but also polluting the water, air and soil with dangerous chemicals. Soon the weather on the planet will change and all kinds of disasters will occur in places where for example it is always hot and in the middle of the summer starts snowing. There is a big ozone whole which is causing radioactive waves to hit the planets surface and to react with the living forms of life. It can lead to different gene mutations and to changes in the habitat and survival of next generations (www.ratical.com). Nowadays humans have become dependable on technologies and do everything to expand them. With the bu...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Understanding Delphi Class Methods In Delphi, a method is a procedure or function that performs an operation on an object. A class method is a method that operates on a class reference instead of an object reference. If you read between the lines, you will find that class methods are accessible even when you havent created an instance of the class (the object). Class Methods vs. Object Methods Every time you create a Delphi component dynamically, you use a class method: the Constructor. The Create constructor is a class method, as opposed to virtually all other methods youll encounter in Delphi programming, which are object methods. A class method is a method of the class, and appropriately enough, an object method is a method that can be called by an instance of the class. This is best illustrated by an example, with classes and objects highlighted in red for clarity: myCheckbox : TCheckbox.Create(nil) ; Here, the call to Create is preceded by the class name and a period (TCheckbox.). Its a method of the class, commonly known as a constructor. This is the mechanism by which instances of a class are created. The result is an instance of the TCheckbox class. These instances are called objects. Contrast the previous line of code with the following: myCheckbox.Repaint; Here, the Repaint method of the TCheckbox object (inherited from TWinControl) is called. The call to Repaint is preceded by the object variable and a period (myCheckbox.). Class methods can be called without an instance of the class (e.g., TCheckbox.Create). Class methods can also be called directly from an object (e.g., myCheckbox.ClassName). However object methods can only be called by an instance of a class (e.g., myCheckbox.Repaint). Behind the scenes, the Create constructor is allocating memory for the object (and performing any additional initialization as specified by TCheckbox or its ancestors). Experimenting With Your Own Class Methods Think of AboutBox (a custom About This Application form). The following code uses something like:procedure TfrMain.mnuInfoClick(Sender: TObject) ;beginAboutBox:TAboutBox.Create(nil) ;tryAboutBox.ShowModal;finallyAboutBox.Release;end;end;This, of course, is a very nice way to do the job, but just to make the code easier to read (and to manage), it would be much more efficient to change it to:procedure TfrMain.mnuInfoClick(Sender: TObject) ;beginTAboutBox.ShowYourself;end;The above line calls the ShowYourself class method of the TAboutBox class. The ShowYourself must be marked with the keyword class:class procedure TAboutBox.ShowYourself;beginAboutBox: TAboutBox.Create(nil) ;tryAboutBox.ShowModal;finallyAboutBox.Release;end;end; Things to Keep in Mind The definition of a class method must include the reserved word class before the procedure or function keyword that starts the definition.AboutBox form is not auto-created (Project-Options).Put AboutBox unit to the uses clause of the main form.Dont forget to declare the procedure in the interface (public) part of the AboutBox unit.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Response paper - Essay Example The American citizens realize that the increased profit pressures are moving the press away from sensitive and controversial issues. These issues may critic on features of corporate America resulting to reduced sales. Thus, the media agendas receive direction from the government and business interests. The citizens are highly becoming aware that the media they are receiving is of lower quality filled with propaganda. The citizens also now understand that the media is a form of support or manipulation tool for the powerful. It also understands that the media consistently fails in its role of delivering true information to the masses. The distrust of media has grown quite extensively over the past five years in many American citizens (In Ward 2013 p. 67). Regulations limiting media products from entering a domestic market include import quotas, immigration rules, foreign ownership regulations, foreign exchange remittances and custom duties. This occurs to protect local industries from foreign competition. However, as times change the trade barriers undergo lessening in an effort to increase trade. If these barriers in the future receive lifting, the media products would flow freely between countries. This unlimited flow of entertainment and information would enhance media globalization. The transport of people and goods keeps improving. Over the years, it keeps getting affordable and reliable. These improvements will facilitate quick and easy transportation of media products to people across the world in the future. These improvements will facilitate growth of global media since the products will be easily accessible. Technology keeps evolving. It keeps reducing geographical distance while allowing for larger volumes of communication. With new developments, the speed of communication keeps increasing. Technology evolvements keep making communication and access of information easier and flexible. Thus, in the future these new
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
To what extent would a social and environmental audit help Coca-Cola to answer its critics - Essay Example An independent study by Exeter University on the sludge released from Coca Cola Company reveals that the sludge that Coca Cola has been dumping on the land has traces of chemicals that are not safe for human consumption. That result invalidates any claim by Coca Cola that the waste material is not harmful to human beings. It exposes Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s operations in India as unethical. In fact, ExeterÃ¢â¬â¢s research is also supported narrowly by study results from the local state laboratories who have positively confirmed the sludge indeed has chemicals. These two findings put any claim of honesty by Coca Cola about the state of its operations in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Kerala state as unreliable. Coca Cola cannot be trusted to give an audit of itself without attempting to sweep its ethical filth below the carpet to avoid possible repercussions. No man can be a judge in his own case (Layzer, 2011). The reliability of claims by those who oppose Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s activities can also be assessed through the prism of facts, exaggeration and hidden interest in the matter. The study reveals that since the Coca Cola opened up in the region, locals have complained about the amount of water they can access. Since water is such a necessity in human lives, and since the complaints have been there since the company began its operations, claims about the drop in the volumes of water seem justifiable. One can say that the villagers are honest to say that the setting up of the company has affected the volumes of waters in the region. That is because water is a commodity used daily in human life and any event that affects its accessibility is easily noticed. The locals can also be justified in their claims that their livelihoods have been destroyed since the building of the plant in the region. It would appear that the huge amounts of water needed for sustainability of the lives of locals has been grossly interfered with in the aftermath of
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Psychology Interview Essay Does the interviewee remember information more accurately if he or she observes the behavior being performed or does he/she prefer to read how the behavior is performed? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The interviewee stated that he will be able to easily remember how a behavior is performed if he read about it; thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why he prefers the second choice (Carducci, 2008). Also, he admitted that if any occurrence or behavior is to be observed only, he is more likely not to be able to recall it especially that he has a countless things on his mind and numerous things listed on his Ã¢â¬Å"to do listÃ¢â¬ (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Comparing him to myself though, I prefer the opposite. I have proven to myself countless of times that I remember more clearly those occurrences or behaviors if I see it being performed. I prefer to observe since I am the type who remembers anything that I have paid careful attention to. Does the interviewee prefers studying in a library, or at home where there are background noises and some distractions? My friend opts to stay in the house to study (Carducci, 2008). He says he cannot focus on his lessons without his personal computer and subwoofers switched on (Carducci, 2008). It is very important that something noisy is present while he studies because otherwise he might just doze off and not accomplish anything at the end of the day (Carducci, 2008). He also stated that he likes to walk around the living room or his own room while reading his lessons aloud (Carducci, 2008). This is another major reason why he does not want to study in the library; he says Ã¢â¬Å"I will only be asked to keep quiet and may even be requested to leave the premises if I study in that mannerÃ¢â¬ (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I cannot do what he does though. I am the type who would be more efficient and effective in studying if I stay in a quiet place like the library. I prefer to stay there if my purpose is to grasp the readings and lessons that the exam will cover. In addition to that, the references that I need for further inquiry are found there and so I must stay in the library to study; computers are available as well in case I need online references. Reading/reviewing while listening to music or any kind of distraction involving sounds just does not go together for me. III. Had the person you are interviewing taken the Myers Briggs test? Report the results. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Yes, the interviewee already experienced taking the Myers Briggs test (Humanmetrics, 2007). The following feedback resulted from the Ã¢â¬Å"Carl Jung and Isabel Myers-Briggs typological approach to personalityÃ¢â¬ (Humanmetrics, 2007). According to the aforementioned, the interviewee is Ã¢â¬Å"very expressed extravert; that he possesses slightly expressed sensing personality; that he has a moderately expressed thinking personality; as well as slightly expressed judging personalityÃ¢â¬ (Humanmetrics, 2007). He is then excessively extroverted, slightly thinking, moderately sensing, and to some extend a perceiving individual (Humanmetrics, 2007). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The results that I got after answering numerous questions are the following: Ã¢â¬Å"that I am distinctively expressed introvert; moderately expressed intuitive personality; moderately expressed feeling personality; and distinctively expressed judging personalityÃ¢â¬ (Humanmetrics, 2007). It says that I am introverted and equally judging; as well as, intuitive and equally feeling (Humanmetrics, 2007). Which experiences does this person feel contributed most in the development of his/her personality? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The interviewee stated that there were countless experiences that he went through (Carducci, 2008). He believes that all these contributed largely in the development of his personality (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã First of all, he comes from an unprivileged family (Carducci, 2008).Ã During his elementary and high school days, he struggled too much as he cannot even go to school everyday because there was no money to be spent on food (Carducci, 2008).Ã He said it was too difficult to stay focused in the lessons or anything thatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on in the classroom with an empty stomach for two or three days straight (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Second, his father usually does not have a job (Carducci, 2008). In cases where he finds one, the longest time that he is able to stay is only four weeks (Carducci, 2008).Ã This is because he is a drunkard and sometimes would go to work extremely drunk (Carducci, 2008).Ã Since such behavior poses great threat to other employees, eventually he is fired (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Third, his father comes home without money and would check on the fridge if there was food to eat (Carducci, 2008).Ã If he does not find anything, he would lash out at his mother and/or attack her (Carducci, 2008).Ã His mother would be whipped, slapped, punched, and even thrown (Carducci, 2008).Ã If he tries to protect his mother and fight his father off, then they would both get hurt at the end of the day (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Fourth, his mother would release her anger on him and his brothers and sisters (Carducci, 2008). She would shout at them, threaten them that she is going to leave them behind because she could no longer take it (Carducci, 2008). She would state that her life would not be so excruciatingly difficult if she did not have a husband and children like them (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Fifth, his little sister turned suicidal because of the family problems that they went through (Carducci, 2008).Ã He would feel hopeless and helpless because of his little sisters numerous attempts (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sixth, his father was sent to prison because of violence against women and children (Carducci, 2008).Ã He feels hurt but at the same time relieved that he no longer has to put up with him (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Seventh, before he can even recover from his Ã¢â¬Å"lossÃ¢â¬ , he feels he is going to lose another important loved one again as his mother remarries a younger man (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It turned out though that his stepfather is a nice, brilliant, open-minded man who cares deeply for his mother and for his brothers and sisters (Carducci, 2008).Ã In fact, he sent him to one of the best schools when he decided he wanted to attend college and finish a Baccalaureate course (Carducci, 2008).Ã He also sent his brothers and sisters to school (Carducci, 2008). In addition to that, he put up a small flower shop for his mother who finished BS Management in college; he said it is about time that his mother also attends to enriching her own career (Carducci, 2008). He also bought each and everyone their needs (and even some of their wants); in fact, he got a personal computer, his brothers received game boy, his sisters got branded dolls, etc (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã His stepfather also brought him to places that he has never been into including the following: Ã¢â¬Å"Transamerica Pyramid, Bank of America, Chinatown, Lombard Street, Haight-Ashbury, Coit Memorial Tower, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California Academy of Sciences, Palace of Fine Arts, Presidio, Alcatraz, University of California, BerkeleyÃ¢â¬ (Carducci, 2008). The trip gave him an opportunity to bond with someone who can be a father to him, who can guide him as he goes along, and who can protect him as he battles with lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s surprises and difficulties (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã He learned to be strong as he went through poverty, abuse from his father, etc (Carducci, 2008). He became even stronger when his extra nice stepfather came along (Carducci, 2008). The training that he got from his stepfather and the good examples showed to him played a large role in the development of his personality (Carducci, 2008). I have my own experiences as well that helped in the development of my personality. First of all, I have a mother who is very supportive and proud of whatever I have accomplished. Second, I was brought up to be a nice individual, not hurting anyone, helping people in need, putting God at the center of life, etc. Such values were instilled in me because the people around me exhibited/portrayed great examples. Third, I experienced being sent to the best schools and so I have learned the proper ethics, training, and etiquette. Fourth, I have witnessed my momÃ¢â¬â¢s battle with ovarian cancer. In spite of being given only a few months to live, she showed me how determined she was in fighting that illness. She showed me her strength, as well as, her faith. I grew to be almost like her, never losing hope and always believing in God. Last but not least, I am also surrounded with friends who are extremely serious and concerned with life. I only have a few friends, which probably explains, why I am introverted, but I am proud to say that they are all true friends. I have developed a positive personality partly because of them as well. Does this person feel that he/she is self-monitoring in regards to his/her attitudes? How or how not? The interviewee believes that he is not at all Ã¢â¬Å"self-monitoringÃ¢â¬ (Carducci, 2008). He admits he would probably be more scared if he would be one (Carducci, 2008). He also feels that he were like that, he would not know what to do since he will turn more conscious about the negative occurrences and may all the more exhibit the negative attitudes that he observed (Carducci, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã On the other hand, I am the Ã¢â¬Å"self-monitoringÃ¢â¬ type since I tend to reminisce about everything that happens to me. I think about it seriously and try to realize what needs to be learned from it and apply it in life. I make sure to try to instill another positive attitude or value to improve my personality. What does the interviewee feel was the strongest influence on his/her attitudes? His stepfather contributed largely to the intervieweeÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes as he is the one who showed and instilled good values on him (Carducci, 2008). Without him and his examples, his personality would not have been developed into a positive/good one (Carducci, 2008). He is also relieved that his stepfather had the strongest influence on his attitude instead of his real father who has never been a good example to him (Carducci, 2008). VII. What role does your interviewee feel a persons race, gender, or ethnicity play when forming that persons personality and attitudes? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ethnicity, gender, and race are three concepts that may be subjected to stereotyping and so an individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ personality/attitude may be greatly affected if these three factors come into play (Carson et. al., 1992). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I believe it can as well; but it only will if a person consents to it. See, stereotyping is subjective, and so if only people can be objective enough then ethnicity, gender, and race will not be able to play a role in the development of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, at least not in the negative manner. VIII. Does this person feel he/she is better at tasks when intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The interviewee is more comfortable with Ã¢â¬Å"extrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ or when an incentive or reward is provided (Meyers, 2004).Ã Meanwhile, I am at ease with its opposite. References Carducci, I.C. (2008). Personal Interview. Carson, R.C. Butcher, J.N. (1992). The World of Abnormal Psychology. New York: Harper Collins. Humanmetrics. (2007). Jung Typology Test. Retrieved January 24, 2008 from Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm Ã Meyers, D. (2004). Psychology: Seventh Edition. New York: Worth Publishers.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Healthy Hearts 1. Different ways in which exercise keeps your Heart Healthy. Cardiovascular System (preventing Angina and Cardiovascular diseases) Citizens who regularly exercise, significantly have less cardiovascular diseases such as Angina (which described in in image 1a is caused due poor blood flow through the blood vessels in the heart.) lowering their risk of heart attacks, strokes, and impotence. Regular exercise lowers blood pressure, raises the level of protective high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, stimulates weight loss, decreases inflammation and helps prevent blood clots. The Harvard Alumni Study found that the incidence of heart attack was proportionate to the amount of exercise performed. Men exercising less than 2,000 kcal a week had 64% higher risk of heart attack than those who exercised at higher rates. Another study showed that a three-month period of intense physical activity, can alternatively increase HDL cholesterol as much as 33% and decrease in LDL cholesterol as much as 9% reducing chances of Cardiovascular diseases. Even Non-intense exercises as much as 20 minutes of walking reduces 19% of such chances. b. Deduction in the Heart Rate (increase in lifespan) The average resting heart rate for an normal adult ranges between 60 to 100 beats per minute (The table below describes the pulse rates for different age groups). Generally, a lower heart rate implies a more efficient heart function and a better cardiovascular system. For example, a well-trained athlete might have a normal resting heart rate as low as 40 beats per minute. Researchers have also found that men with fast resting heart rates are more likely to develop high blood pressure symptoms than those with slower rates. Some sympto... ... - Heart & Circulatory System. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. . 3. http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/long-work-hours-extra-weight-women-article-1.1112902 Images- "How Angina Pectoris Occurs?" Health Giants RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. . 2. Vasagar, Jeevan, and Martin Williams. "Teachers Warned over Befriending Pupils on Facebook." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 24 Jan. 2012. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. . 3. "Running in Cork, Ireland." : Running Marathons May Cause Damage to Your Heart. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. .
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
AnalysisÃ¢â¬ Works of art or literature profoundly reveal their creator's psychologyÃ¢â¬ Marle BonaparteIn this chapter, the detailed analysis would focus on the aspect on different attitudes adopted by Edgar Allan Poe to portray his conception of death in selected poems. Poe himself sees death in various experiences and his transformation of death from one poem to another is noteworthy. The bedrock of analysis would be The Raven, Annabel Lee, Lenore, The City in the Sea, Eldorado, and The Conqueror Worm. Although the theme in these poems is the same, the attitudes and the nature of description are entirely different in all of them. The chapter is allocated to three subtitles, man's attitude towards death of the beloved, man's description of death and the third corresponds to the reasons behind these attitudes adopted based on Poe's biography.3.1 Man's attitude towards the death of the beloved:3.1.1 The RavenThe poem follows an unnamed narrator who is also a lamenting lover of his dead beloved Lenore. Lenore is thought to be the deceased wife of Poe and holds the central element in this poem. The narrative poem begins on a dreary night of December, where the lover is seen as tired and weak. Remembering his dead beloved he experiences ennui and tries to overcome this by diverting his attention to an old book. As the narrator is seen feeling at unease and weak, he hears a tapping on his chamber door. He consoles himself that a visitor may have tapped the door to seek asylum and nothing else. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,Ã¢â¬â While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËT is some visitor,Ã¢â¬ I muttered, Ã¢â¬Å"tapping at my chamber door;Only this and nothing more.Ã¢â¬ (The Raven 112)Since the beginning of the poem, reader can feel the ambience of death surrounding the narrator. The use of Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ is the poem indicates unnamed narrator being fearful and irritated as he describes the sound in rather negative term Ã¢â¬Å"rappingÃ¢â¬ . According to TheFreeDictionary, the word corresponds to a series of rapid audible blows in order to attract attention. This rapping sound generated which is described is making the narrator aware of his surroundings more and he begins to fear for himself. Narrator also uses Ã¢â¬Å"gentleÃ¢â¬ which portrays yet another descriptive aspect, the gentle tap made the narrator aware of his situation and was able to respond to it. The narrator also shows his irritated nature: Ã¢â¬Å"Tis some visitor,Ã¢â¬ I muttered, Ã¢â¬Å"tapping at my chamber door / Only this and nothing more.Ã¢â¬ Narrator now moves on to remembering his lost beloved Lenore. He can be evidently seen to showcase his unconscious through a moment of flashback, a specific time that he is reliving again in that chamber. The use of words Ã¢â¬Å"dying embersÃ¢â¬ showcases a trigger generated in the narrator about his lost Lenore. It is said that Ã¢â¬Å"we unconsciously tend to run away from our distressing thoughts and painful experiences by believing and convincing ourselves to forget them.Ã¢â¬ These repressed thoughts and experiences remain in our unconscious in a dormant phase, and as soon as similar situation occurs, these recurring experiences surfaces. The past has surfaced again when the narrator moves into flashback, feeling sorrow for having lost his beloved forever:Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak DecemberAnd each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor. Eagerly I wished the morrow;Ã¢â¬âvainly I had sought to borrow From my books surcease of sorrowÃ¢â¬âsorrow for the lost Lenore,For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore: Nameless here for evermore. (The Raven 112-113)Here, narrator uses Ã¢â¬Å"bleak DecemberÃ¢â¬ to signify cold, and consequently death. The very first line creates a conception of death as cold and unwavering in the reader's eyes. Nothing lives in the winter, for those who live goes into hibernation till the winter surpasses. December is the month of winter. This symbolizes death as cold, unforgiving and larger in magnitude. The cold of winter wipes out the warmth effortlessly as the narrator explains it as Ã¢â¬Å"dying emberÃ¢â¬ . This dying ember generated the flashback of his beloved and this in turn instils the narrator to think about his beloved's death. He calls her the Ã¢â¬Å"fair maidenÃ¢â¬ whom the angels took away, leaving narrator sorrowful and mournful in attribute. To surpass his sorrow, he sought refuge in books: Ã¢â¬Å"Eagerly I wished the morrow; Ã¢â¬â-vainly I had sought to borrow / From my books surcease of sorrowÃ¢â¬â-sorrow for the lost Lenore. Now narrator moves to open the door, fearing, grieving, and contemplating that it might be Lenore that seeks entrance in his chamber. The depiction of this fear is uncanny as narrator shows his inner fear which enthralls in him terrible yet fantastic horrors that he has never felt before. This uncanny attitude towards death is evident of the nature of Poe. Poe regards death as an inevitable concept in this narrative poem. The horrors that the narrator faces are portrayed through the musical effect of silken purple curtain, sad, uncertain rustling of purple curtain, narrator is now terrified of this sound and reassures himself that it might be some visitor who seeks entrance at his chamber door. From the initial concept of death as an inevitable phenomena, the transformation has made death generating fear inside narrator. The narrator is now fearful of the ambience around him as it generates the flashback of his lost love. And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtainThrilled meÃ¢â¬âfilled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeatingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËT is some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door,Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door:This it is and nothing more.Ã¢â¬ (The Raven 113) The narrator's state is been showcased as he tries to forgo his fear and establishes himself adamantly for the visitor. He converses with the person on the other side of the door. Narrator, completely unknown of the visitor, tries to communicate his thoughts by saying that he was nearly napping, and the visitor's tapping was so distinct and clear that he was able to hear it, therefore, asks for their apology for he was napping and opens the door wide. However, the narrator meets nothing but darkness on the other side. Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,Ã¢â¬ Sir,Ã¢â¬ said I, Ã¢â¬Å"or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping,And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door,That I scarce was sure I heard youÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âhere I opened wide the door:Ã¢â¬â Darkness there and nothing more. (The Raven 113-114) The narrator now resonates with his fear again, wondering, fearing Ã¢â¬Å"dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before. In absolute fear, the only word that narrator could think of was of Lenore and as he speaks it, it reverberates back to him. This can also be subjected as his inner loneliness, the narrator, weak from his mourning of his beloved feels alone and forgotten, and as he hears the tapping, thinks of his lost love coming back to him. According to Freud, the fear of death dominates us more often than we know. This fear of death allowed the narrator to recollect his memories of Lenore and call her out when he opens the door. Later a loud tapping is again heard and when he checks again finds a stately Raven of saintly days of yore entering his chamber.it sought bust of Pallas just above his chamber door to settle on and gave no attention to the narrator. The Raven plays a crucial role in this poem. This Raven not only acts as a simple animal doing its bidding, but acts as a pivot to unleash the emotions narrator carries with him.Now the conception of death has yet again transformed. Death has now materialized in the form of The Raven. The raven is first and foremost, considered a bird of evil. This bird has long since been associated with different mythologies. In Norse mythology, for instance, Raven signifies as a messenger. Odin's two ravens, Hugin and Munin, Thought and Memory; flew across the world to collect news of the day and report back to Odin. It is also associated to be a harbinger of death and doom, with strong associations with storms and floods. Narrator now fascinated and excited of the entrance of the Raven Ã¢â¬Å"ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smilingÃ¢â¬ (Raven 43) asks the creature of its name. The raven surprises the speaker by saying Ã¢â¬Å"NevermoreÃ¢â¬ . Narrator curious to know more starts inquiring the Raven of its whereabouts. He thinks for a minute as to what can he ask from the bird when his mind starts to wander back to his lost Lenore. The speaker feels the air becoming dense around him and scented with perfume from some heavenly being Seraphim. According to Christian angelology, Seraphim mean Ã¢â¬Å"burning onesÃ¢â¬ or in other words, nobles. They are also known as Ã¢â¬Å"ones of loveÃ¢â¬ . Here the narrator believes Raven to be a messenger, a prophet which could predict if he could meet his beloved Lenore in Heaven to which he replies Ã¢â¬Å"NevermoreÃ¢â¬ . A constant to and fro is showcased between the narrator and the Raven. By saying nevermore, the Raven suggests that the narrator would never be able to let go of his beloved's memories and they would haunt him till the end of times. Narrator, enraged, calls the raven Ã¢â¬Å"thing of evilÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"devilÃ¢â¬ , and commands the devil to return to the Ã¢â¬Å"Night's Plutonian shoreÃ¢â¬ . Pluto is the god of the underworld; Hades. It is presumed that the Raven has the knowledge of the dead and therefore its response Ã¢â¬Å"NevermoreÃ¢â¬ is deemed relevant. Through this, narrator realizes that death is the ultimate end to everything and he will never meet with his beloved again. This makes him even more melancholic and depressed and commands the raven to leave his chamber, Leave my loneliness unbroken!Ã¢â¬âquit the bust above my door / Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!Ã¢â¬ And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sittingOn the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door; And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floorShall be liftedÃ¢â¬ânevermore!These lines clearly indicate the perception of narrator. Despite the constant name calling and ordering the Raven to leave his chambers, the creature doesn't move. This can be linked back to Death itself. No matter how one individual tries to make it go away, the course of nature undertaken by death would never shift from its original path. The Raven does not move as is Ã¢â¬Å"still sitting on the bust of Pallas just above my chamber doorÃ¢â¬ . The repetition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"NevermoreÃ¢â¬ adds to the mood of the poem. Nevermore is a negative word, which means never again, which evokes emotions of helplessness and despair, sadness and melancholy; all the attributes concerning the death of someone. In this poem, this word evokes emotion concerning the death of a beloved.According to Freud's theory on death, the speaker attitude towards the death of his beloved is unconsciously portrayed. The speaker travels in flashbacks, remembering the past encounters with his love and re living those emotions unconsciously. He could not sever his dependence from his lover's memories. Even if he tries to keep himself occupied with reading old volumes of books, he still somehow, retracts back to her memory that is infused in his unconscious forever. As a result, his attitude towards the raven and his answers are the manifestation of his unconscious mind's needs. Ã¢â¬Å"Unconscious motivations and needs have a role in determining our behaviorÃ¢â¬ .
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"From a close study of the opening of the novel; and with reference to other stages throughout, discuss the relationship of George and Lennie, commenting on how it relates to the theme of lonelinessÃ¢â¬ By Matthew Keane In the novel, the two main characters, George and Lennie, have a parent-child relationship, as George leads the way for Lennie; he also gives him advice and teaches him. Lennie follows all advice that George gives him. The idea of a teacher-student relationship is evident because George shows all signs of intelligence; he gives all the advice, and has all the ideas. Lennie on the other hand, is mentally challenged, and needs all the advice that George can give him. LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s mental capability is reflected in his descriptive appearance, he is often compared to animals, his actions and reactions are childlike, and he also has a bad memory. However, LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s bad memory can lead to friction, as George can lost his temper with him because he often has to remind Lennie several times before he can remember. Overall, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re more like father and son than equal adults. From the first time they are introduced, we immediately get the impression of one being a follower and another being a leader, we can tell this by the line, Ã¢â¬Å"They had walked in single file down the path, and even in the open one stayed behind the otherÃ¢â¬ The word Ã¢â¬Å"evenÃ¢â¬ in this sentence signifies that no matter what, George will always lead Lennie, even though there was plenty of space for Lennie to walk next to him, he still stayed behind George. The reader is given an immediate insight to LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s character when Steinbeck uses animal imagery; most of his actions are compared to animals, Ã¢â¬Å"Lennie dabbled his big pawÃ¢â¬ These animal comparisons tells the reader that Lennie shares the innocent qualities, as most of his actions are made on impulse, and he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about what heÃ¢â¬â¢s doing. Lennie also has a childlike innocence, because he has the mind of a child and again doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about his actions. However, LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s animal-like behaviour shows that he can have an unpredictable nature, as his acting on impulse can have unexpected results. The childlike qualities that Lennie displays can sometimes lead to friction between him and George. This happens when LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s memory loss causes George to lost his temper frequently, Ã¢â¬Å"So you forgot that already did you? I gotta tell you again do I? Jesus Christ, youÃ¢â¬â¢re a crazy bastardÃ¢â¬ This happens frequently in the novel, this quote is taken just after the bus driver drops them off at the wrong place, George has a reason to chastise Lennie about his poor memory, these outbursts also show that he is in control of Lennie. Steinbeck reinforces the point about who is in control of the relationship by the description if when Lennie keeps a dead mouse in his pocket, and George forces Lennie to give him the mouse. Ã¢â¬Å"LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s closed hand slowly obeyed. George took the mouse and threw it across the pool to the other side, amongst the brushÃ¢â¬ The tone used by George Ã¢â¬Å"Give it here!Ã¢â¬ clearly shows that he is in control. When Lennie retrieves the mouse from the bushes, George shows he is in control by snapping his fingers, and then Lennie immediately returns the mouse. There is another purpose in this episode, which is to show us LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s irresistible urge to pet things; as later on in the novel it has an important role, as the urge lands him in trouble when he accidentally kills CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife by breaking her neck. So this part in the novel his significance to tell us about LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s urge to pet soft things. The stroking of soft things symbolises that Lennie wants a soft and easy life, and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the hard life that he has now. Lennie wishes for something soft that represents the desire for something finer, to be held onto in literal reality leads to tragic consequences of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s death, made more poignant, almost dramatic irony takes place at the moment the news arrives that confirms that the ranch is thereÃ¢â¬â¢s. Clearly without George around, Lennie has no control. This control that George has over Lennie also means that Lennie is totally dependant on George. As a result, George often seems angry or upset at Lennie. In the opening, George seems easily angered because of the bus driver, we can tell this by the tone that he speaks to Lennie in, Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re a crazy bastardÃ¢â¬ This brings the negative side of the relationship to the surface, Ã¢â¬Å"If I was alone, I could live so easyÃ¢â¬ This proves that George can see Lennie as a hindrance to his life, that without Lennie, George wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to always look after him. George also bring up the subject of what happened in Weed, just to make Lennie feel bad, Ã¢â¬Å"Jus wanted to feel that girls dressÃ¢â¬ ¦well, how the hell did she know you just wanted to feel her dress?Ã¢â¬ Also he makes Lennie feel bad by saying that itÃ¢â¬â¢s LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s fault that they both lose their jobs, Ã¢â¬Å"I got you! You canÃ¢â¬â¢t keep a job and you lose me everÃ¢â¬â¢ job I getÃ¢â¬ This long passage acts as a warning to what happens later in the barn with CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, we also learn of what happened in Weed, Ã¢â¬Å"How the hell did she know you jusÃ¢â¬â¢ wanted to feel her dress? She jerks back and you hold on like it was a mouse. She yells and we got to hide in an irrigation ditch all days with guys looking for usÃ¢â¬ This shows us LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s urge to touch soft things, such as a dress, or CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife hair. The incident with CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has an uncanny resemblance to what happened in Weed, as while stroking CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s hair, she gets scared and tries to scream, Lennie tries to stop her screaming and holds on to her, but he unfortunately breaks her neck. Although George is quick to anger, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to hurt Lennie, when George realises he has hurt LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, he immediately feels bad, Ã¢â¬Å"His anger left him suddenly, He looked across the fire at LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s anguished face, and then he looked ashamedly at the flamesÃ¢â¬ The true nature of their relationship is revealed as father and son when George apologises to Lennie and then explains to him, Ã¢â¬Å"No look! I was jusÃ¢â¬â¢ foolinÃ¢â¬â¢, Lennie. Course I want you to stay with me. Trouble with mice is you always kill emÃ¢â¬ He then tries to reason, Ã¢â¬Å"First chance I get, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll give you a pup. Maybe you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t kill it. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢d be better than mice.Ã¢â¬ This passage ends with George re-counting theyÃ¢â¬â¢re shared dream, Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a big vegetable patch and a rabbit hutch and chickensÃ¢â¬ This last phase of the opening chapter clearly shows how George also gets much from this relationship. The unreserved love that Lennie extends to George sets them both apart from the other drifters and farm hands who generally have nothing. Ã¢â¬Å"Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t belong no place.Ã¢â¬ Even though, while angry, George tells Lennie that he could behave like the other men, Ã¢â¬Å"If I was alone I could live so easyÃ¢â¬ ¦.when the end of the month came I could take my fifty bucks and go into town and get whatever I wantÃ¢â¬ His true feelings are revealed later while George is telling slim why he and Lennie are so close, he tells Slim of how one time he abused LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s trust, while swimming in the Sacramento river, he tells Lennie to dive in the water, even though he cannot swim. George then dives into the river to save Lennie, and since then George realises how much Lennie depends on George. This closeness is confirmed by GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction when CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s body is found, Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll lock Ã¢â¬Ëim up anÃ¢â¬â¢ be nice to himÃ¢â¬ George also tries to defend Lennie as he knows that Lennie didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to kill CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËLennie never done it in meannessÃ¢â¬â¢ he said Ã¢â¬ËAll the time he done bad things but he never done one of Ã¢â¬â¢em mean'Ã¢â¬ The relationship established in the opening is then illustrated throughout the novel. The first time that George and Lennie meet Curley, George protects Lennie from Curley. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËWhat the hell are you getting into it for?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËWe travel togetherÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËOh so itÃ¢â¬â¢s that way?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËYeah itÃ¢â¬â¢s that way'Ã¢â¬ Also, when CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife first appears, George is again careful to make sure Lennie doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make a mistake similar to the incident in Weed, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËListen to me you crazy bastard,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said firmly, Ã¢â¬ËDonÃ¢â¬â¢t you even take a look at that bitch. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care what she says or what she does'Ã¢â¬ The idea of a father-son relationship is continued during the passage where Curley is attacking Lennie, but Lennie will not fight back until George orders him to, Ã¢â¬Å"GeorgeÃ¢â¬ ¦make um let me alone, George.Ã¢â¬ This shows us that Lennie waits for George to give him permission before heÃ¢â¬â¢ll do anything. When Candy finds CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s body, George makes it clear that he will not let anyone hurt Lennie Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll lock Ã¢â¬Ëim up anÃ¢â¬â¢ be nice to Ã¢â¬ËimÃ¢â¬ This shows the strength of their relationship, as George knows that Lennie has done something bad, and should be punished, but he still doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want anyone to harm him. Unfortunately, George was unable to save Lennie from himself, and so when Lennie accidentally kills CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, George has no other option, but to shoot Lennie, he has to take this option because if Lennie was put into prison, he would be alone, with no-one to look after him properly, and condemned to a life if terror and madness. Curley, on the other hand, wants Lennie to die in pain and suffering. Ã¢â¬Å"Shoot for his guts. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢ll double Ã¢â¬Ëim overÃ¢â¬ Slim, being the voice of authority in the novel, gives the final confirmation on the killing of Lennie, Ã¢â¬Å"I guess we gotta get Ã¢â¬ËimÃ¢â¬ In my opinion, the novel was very good, the shock ending was very surprising and unexpected, but a closer look throughout the novel foreshows us what happens, such signs as what happened in Weed, the mice that Lennie kills, the need to pet soft things, all of this gives the reader clues to what happens at the end. In my opinion, the relationship between George and Lennie is less than a relationship between two equal adults, and more like father-son, as one of the pair continually leads the other, while the other always follows
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Facts and Characteristics of Rodents Rodents (Rodentia) are a group of mammals that includes squirrels, dormice, mice, rats, gerbils, beavers, gophers, kangaroo rats, porcupines, pocket mice, springhares, and many others. There areÃ more than 2000 species of rodents alive today, making them the most diverse of all mammal groups.Ã Rodents are a widespread group of mammals, they occur in most terrestrial habitats and are only absent from Antarctica,Ã New Zealand, and a handful ofÃ oceanic islands. Rodents have teeth that are specialized for chewing and gnawing. They haveÃ one pair of incisors in each jaw (upper and lower)Ã and a large gap (called a diastema) located between their incisors and molars. The incisors of rodents grow continuouslyÃ and are maintained through constant use- grinding and gnawing wears away the tooth so that is always sharp and remainsÃ the correct length. Rodents also have one or multiple pairs of premolars or molars (these teeth, also called cheek teeth, areÃ located towards the back of the animals upper and lower jaws). What They Eat Rodents eat a variety of different foods including leaves, fruit, seeds, and small invertebrates. The cellulose rodents eat is processed in a structure called theÃ caecum. The caecum is a pouch in the digestive tract that houses bacteria that are capable of breaking down tough plant material into digestible form. Key Role Rodents often play a key role in the communities in which they live because they serve as prey for other mammals and birds. In this way, they are similar to hares, rabbits, and pikas, a group of mammals whose members also serve as prey for carnivorous birds and mammals.Ã To counterbalance the intense predation pressures they suffer and to maintain healthy population levels, rodentsÃ must produce large litters of young every year. Key Characteristics TheÃ key characteristics of rodents include: one pair of incisors in each jaw (upper and lower)incisors grow continuouslyincisors lack enamel on the back of the tooth (and are worn down with use)a large gap (diastema) behind incisorsno canine teethcomplex jaw musculaturebaculum (penis bone) Classification Rodents are classified within the following taxonomic hierarchy: Animals Chordates Vertebrates Tetrapods Amniotes Mammals Rodents Rodents are divided into the following taxonomic groups: Hystricognath rodents (Hystricomorpha): There are about 300 species of hystricognath rodents alive today. Members of this group include gundis, Old World porcupines, dassie rats, cane rats, New World porcupines, agoutis, acouchis, pacas, tuco-tucos, spiny rats, chinchilla rats, nutrias, cavies, capybaras, guinea pigs, and many others.Ã Hystricognath rodents have a unique arrangement of their jaw muscles that differs from all other rodents.Mouse-like rodents (Myomorpha) - There are about 1,400 species of mouse-like rodents alive today. Members of this group include mice, rats, hamsters, voles, lemmings, dormice, harvest mice, muskrats, and gerbils. Most species of mouse-like rodents are nocturnal and feed on seeds and grains.Scaly-tailed squirrels and springhares (Anomaluromorpha): There are nine species of scaly-tailed squirrels and springhares alive today. Members of this group include the Pels flying squirrel, long-eared flying mouse, Cameroon scaly-tail, East African springhare, and the South African springhare. Some members of this group (notably the scaly-tailed squirrels) have membranes that stretch between their front and hind legs that enable them to glide. Squirrels-like rodents (Sciuromorpha): There are about 273 species of squirrel-like rodentsÃ alive today. Members of this group include beavers, mountain beavers, squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, and flying squirrels. Squirrels-like rodents have a unique arrangement of their jaw muscles that differs from all other rodents. Source: Hickman C, Roberts L, Keen S, Larson A, lAnson H, Eisenhour D.Ã Integrated Principles of ZoologyÃ 14th ed. Boston MA: McGraw-Hill; 2006. 910 p.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Profile of the Greek God Zeus The Greek god Zeus was the top Olympian god in the Greek pantheon. After he took credit for rescuing his brothers and sisters from their father Cronus, Zeus became king of heaven and gave his brothers, Poseidon and Hades, the sea and the underworld, respectively, for their domains. Zeus was the husband of Hera, but he had many affairs with other goddesses, mortal women, and female animals. Zeus mated with, among others, Aegina, Alcmena, Calliope, Cassiopea, Demeter, Dione, Europa, Io, Leda, Leto, Mnemosyne, Niobe, and Semele. In the Roman pantheon, Zeus is known as Jupiter. Family Zeus is father of gods and men. A sky god, he controls lightning, which he uses as a weapon, and thunder. He is king on Mount Olympus, the home of the Greek gods. He is also credited as the father of Greek heroes and the ancestor of many other Greeks. Zeus mated with many mortals and goddesses but is married to his sister Hera (Juno). Zeus is the son of the Ã¢â¬â¹Ã¢â¬â¹Titans Cronus and Rhea. He is the brother of his wife Hera, his other sisters Demeter and Hestia, and his brothers Hades and Poseidon. Roman Equivalent The Roman name for Zeus is Jupiter and sometimes Jove. Jupiter is thought to be made up of a Proto-Indoeuropean word for god, *deiw-os, combined with the word for father, pater, like Zeus Pater. Attributes Zeus is shown with a beard and long hair. His other attributes include scepter, eagle, cornucopia, aegis, ram, and lion. The cornucopia or (goat) horn of plenty comes from the story of his Zeus infancy when he was nursed by Amalthea.Ã¢â¬â¹ Powers of Zeus Zeus is a sky god with control over weather, especially of rain and lightning. He is King of the gods and a god of oracles especially in the sacred oak at Dodona. In the story of the Trojan War, Zeus, as a judge, listens to the claims of other gods in support of their side. He then renders decisions on acceptable behavior. He remains neutral most of the time, allowing his son Sarpedon to die and glorifying his favorite, Hector. Etymology of Zeus and Jupiter The root of both Zeus and Jupiter is in a proto-Indo-European word for the often personified concepts of day/light/sky. Zeus Abducts Mortals There are many myths about Zeus. Some involve demanding acceptable conduct of others, whether human or divine. Zeus was enraged with the behavior of Prometheus. The titan had tricked Zeus into taking the non-meat portion of the original sacrifice so that mankind could enjoy the food. In response, the king of the gods deprived mankind of the use of fire so they wouldnt be able to enjoy the boon theyd been granted, but Prometheus found a way around this, and stole some of the gods fire by hiding it in a stalk of fennel and then giving it to mankind. Zeus punished Prometheus with having his liver pecked out every day. But Zeus himself misbehaves at least according to human standards. It is tempting to say that his primary occupation is that of seducer. In order to seduce, he sometimes changed his shape into that of an animal or bird. When he impregnated Leda, he appeared as a swan [see Leda and the Swan].When he abducted Ganymede, he appeared as an eagle [see Zeus and Ganymede] in order to take Ganymede to the home of the gods where he would replace Hebe as cupbearer; andwhen Zeus carried off Europa, he appeared as a tempting white bull[see Europa and Zeus] although why the Mediterranean women were so enamored of bulls is beyond the imaginative capacities of this urban-dweller setting in motion the quest of Cadmus and the settling of Thebes. The hunt for Europa provides one mythological version of the introduction of letters to Greece. The Olympic Games were initially held to honor Zeus.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Assignment 1 - Essay Example The first four chapter of New Testament Survey by Gromacki, Robert G explains that for one to have a good understanding of the New Testament, one should have knowledge of the last years which characterized Israel as a kingdom. In addition, questions which were not answered in the New Testament are pointed out to exist in the six centuries before Jesus Christ in the chapter. The chapter acts as a reference to the New Testament books in the bible as it relates various happenings that were missed by both the new and Old Testament. It gives a chart of intertestamental history that is extremely important for those who wishes to have a clear understanding of the New Testament. The chapters points out to the differences in how individuals view the new testament by fixing in different passages and harmonizing it to the reader. The chapters gives a clear historical context to the new testament as it lays individuals emphasis on different books that are needed for one to understand the new testament. Moreover, the chapters also have in them pictures and charts that give core emphasis to the facts presented by the New Testament. However, in my opinion, the first four chapters in New Testament Survey by Gromacki, Robert G are written in a conservative position as other individuals in the society do not take the same stand as the author of the book. The chapters are written in a fundamentalist position as the writings on the chapters are based on tradition rather than scholarship. The first four chapters discounts the synoptic gospels and other religious books like the Koran, thus the chapters does not take into consideration the views and beliefs of other scholars in the society who have an intention of reading the book. The chapters are also written to harmonize the gospels as the writings on the chapters are extensive. Therefore, it acts as study bible when the bible parts that are included and the chapters are